List And Brief History of the German States, Grand Duchies, Principalities, etc before 1806......Page M.  Remmick-Hubert Site

Last Updated:  29 April 2004

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List And Brief History of the German States, Grand Duchies, Principalities, etc before 1806 continued......


button Maas.  Presently in France.  Formerly  the Duchy of Bar  which was  passed  in 1431 to Lorraine.  See Lorraine...  Edward, Count of Bar d. 1336 m. Mary, the daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy d. 1305. Her sister Johanna m. Philip VI, King of France and another sister Margaret was also wed to a King of France, Louis X, d. 1316..  

button Magdeburg.  Presently in the German state  (Land) of Saxony-Anhalt. the capital by the Elbe River.   Formerly principality and archbishopric.  Was the capital of Prussian Saxony.  Granted charter in 1188.   The Reichstag vote was secularized and exercised by Brandenburg.  In 1524 accepted the Reformation.  From 1561 to 1563 the archbishop, a prince of the House of Brandenburg, changed to Protestantism and continued to rule the archbishopric as administrator.  In the Thirty Years War the Catholic imperials under Tilly stormed Magdeburg.... The city burned down and half of the people (abt 20,000) perished.  From 1679 to 17450 many French and Palatine refugees escaped the French revolutionaries which was the center of Lutheranism.  Brandenburg retired ownership  at the Treaty of Westphalia and became a member of the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648)  The City became a strong fortress for the Prussian and was passed to the Hohenzollerns.  In 1816 became the capital of the the area which was under the rule of Napoleon.

Note:  See family of Countess Elizabeth, nee Kaltenbrun von Kaltenborn, von Hahn-Hein b. abt 1762 poss from Magdeburg 

button Mainz (Mayence).  Presently  the capital of Rheinland-Pfalz and on the left bank of the Rhine River.  Formerly ecclesiastical electoral principality.  The following estates, titles and territories associated with Mainz are:  areas in Erthal, Schoeborn, Bassenheim, Ostein, Stadion, Dalberg, Aschaffenburg, parts of Taubertal and Spessart regions, Kinzigtal, Thuringia, Eichsfeld , Hessen, Erfurt, Amoeneburg, Kurmainz (electoral Mainz), lands near Mainz, Bingen, Dieburg, Seligenstadt, Bensheim-Heppenhein.  After 1648 the lands added were areas in Chur, Konstanz, Augsburg, Strassburg, Speyer, Worms, Wuerzburg, Eichstaett, Paderborn, Verden, Hildesheim, Halberstadt, Prague, Olomouc (Olmuetz) and Fulda. After 1802 the lands were restricted to an area west of the Rhine River.  The areas after 1648 represented by the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia and represented by the Kurmainz.

The history of the areas is first recorded in 38 B.C. when the Romans placed their castrum (camp) Moguntiacu, which was near a Keltic settlement  which had existed since about 10 A.D. .... For the Romans it became the main stronghold and headquarters of the commanding officers who were trying to take control of Upper Germania Superior [Germany].  As the Romans ceased to exist, the Germans let the camp fall into ruins....  In 742 St. Boniface founded the archbishopric and the town became the center for Christianity in the Germanic people of the area.  The Archbishops grew in power and in 10th c. they became the  chancellors of the Holy Roman Empire.... In 1184 Emperor Frederick Barbarossa created a marvelous imperial festival and its golden years began. For a time the town even held the label of "Aurea Moguntia"  ("Golden Mainz").  It was in 1450 that the printer Johannes Gutenberg, who had invented the printing press with the movable type, set up shop and cranked out the bibles which would establish a common German language.  See the brief history of German in Linguistic Chart Showing German dialect spoken by Palatines .  During the Thirty Years War,  Mainz was invaded by the Swedes.... In 1792 Mainz was declared a republic.  By 1801 the city of Mainz became French and taken into the Department of Donnersberg.  After Napoleon's defeat, the city's garrisons held Prussian and Austrians troops....  In 1816 Mainz became the capital of the Province of Rhine-Hesse.  In 1950 it became capital of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate (Pfalz).        

button Manderscheid.  Presently in Kreis Bernkastel-Wittlich, Rheinland-Pfalz.  Formerly Herrschaft and Grafschaft. In the early 1500s,  the rise of Protestants  created what is known as the Reformation.  The Catholics prevented Protestants uprisings .... and the Catholics remained in control.  Mediatized by the Habsburg in 1546.  For a time the French troops occupied Manderscheid  which was after 1792 to 1814 when the Prussians (Hohenzollerns) gained the area. 

button Mansfeld.  Presently in  ______    When it was in the German Democratic Republic it was in Kreis Hettstedt, Bezirk Halle which is presently in Saxony-Anhalt.  Formerly Grafschaft.  One of the ruling families was Mansfeld-Bornstaedter who were Catholic.  Their estates were "mortgaged" or absorbed by Saxony and Prussia.  The "allodial possessions" which remained were inherited by the House of Colloredo.   The majority of the people of the area were Protestants.   

button Marchtal.  Presently in  _____.  Formerly a prelate nullius.

button Matsch [Metsch].  Presently a part of Tirol, Austria and has been so after 1505  the same time it lost it's seat in the Reichstag.

button Maulbronn.  Presently in Kreis Vaihingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Formerly a prelate nullius.  It was founded around the Cistercian Abbey which was built in 1146.  1504 it was secularized by Wuerttemberg.... After 1556 it became Protestant seminary....  There was a time the abbey owned 100 villages (not named).

button Maxlrain.  See Hohen-Waldeck and Maxlrain.

button Mecklenburg.  Presently in the Land Mecklenburg-West Pomerania (Vorpommern) a region in what was called East Germany on the Baltic Sea.  Its former capital was Schwerin.  It held the cities of:  Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund.  It was an important Hanseatic port.  Its early inhabitants were the Slavic tribes (Obodrites) in the the 6th c.  Thereafter,  Prince Niklot d. 1169 is the ancestor of the Mecklenburg rulers.  .. Emp. Frederick Barbarossa raised the Wendish rulers to Prince ....  It was colonized  and Christianized in the 12th c  by  Prince Niklot's des. Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony,  The Princes of Mecklenburg , Henry the Lion  was raised in rank to Dukes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1348.  His son Albrecht II became Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin... His uncle John II's son held the title of Princes of Wenden (ext. 1435). It was taken by the  conquering House of Wallenstein in 1628.  The Wallenstein's  lost it in 1632 and Mecklenburg Duchy reverted to the the Dukes of Mecklenburg... Mecklenburg was divided in 1701 and became two duchies (Schwerin and Stargard) while Albert II became King of Sweden through his mother's lineage. Albert's brother, John was given the Duchy of Stargard.  Albert's son, Magnus I and his son Albrecht VI continued ruling of Schwern.   In 1815 it was united and became the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.  Sided with Prussia in the Austria-Prussian War (1866) and joined the German Empire in 1871.  In 1918 the Grand Dukes were deposed.  In 1934 both Mecklenburgs were united under the German Democratic Republic.  In 1990 when East Germany united to the west, Mecklenburg became united with West Pomerania.

button Meerholz.  Presently in Kreis Gelnhausen, Hessen.  See Wetterauische Grafenkolleg  (Isenburg-Buedingen-Meerholz-Waechtersbach)

button Meersburg.  Presently in Alsace, France.  Formerly Grafschaft.  In the 16 c. it was part of Austria.  (Not the town on Lake Constance.)

button Meissen.  Presently in Bezirk Dresden,  Saxony.  Formerly marquisate and bishopric.  The ecclesiastical lands became Protestant in 1587.  Absorbed by Kursachsen (Electoral Saxony).  Formerly German Democratic republic.  Best known, now, for its Meissen pottery. 

button Memmingen.  Presently in Swabia, Bayern (Bavaria).  Formerly Reichsstadt.  Founded in the mid 13c by  the [Wittelsbach] Duke Welf VI...  (Guelphs).  Became a free town in 1268... The family of Fuggers, a merchant dynasty of Augsburg, (from 1589)  lived just to the south at their residence of Fuggenbau. Member of the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648).  Reichsstadt controlled 12 villages. During the Thirty Years War, Wallenstein stayed here (1660)... and his troops occupied the area for a time..  In 1803 its territories fell to Bavaria.

button Merseberg.  Presently in Bezirk Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.  Formerly German Democratic Republic.  A settlement of prehistoric times was established earlier and was near where Henry I built his schloss and then consecrated his schloss church in 931... which was raised to status of cathedral when the bishopric of Merseburg was established in 968.   In 1543 to 1561 their territories became Protestant.

button Metternich, Counts of (von).  Catholic family which originated in the lower Rhine region and Luxemburg.  See Winneburg and Beilstein.  Perhaps the best known in history is Clemens L. W. , Count Metternich who later became Prince.  Born in Coblenz.  In 1801 was appointed Hapsburg Minister at Dresden and then at Berlin (1803-1806).  After Jena Battle he was sent as ambassador to Paris for three years... In 1809 he became Minister of Foreign Affairs and Chancellor and negotiated a new peace with France after the Battle of Wagram....Helped arrange the marriage of Napoleon with Marie-Louise, the daughter of the King [Emp.*] of Austria...He was part of the force for drawing nationalism through the Holy Alliance and the Congress system.  

button Metz.  Presently in Department Moselle, France and has been so since 1552  except the following years when it returned to Germany: 1871 to 1918 and, again, 1940 to 1944... Formerly Reichstadt and bishopric.

button Minden.  Presently in Nordrhein-Westfalen.  The town had grown out of a fishing settlement at the ford on the Weser River.  In 798 Charlemagne founded the bishopric of Minden and this caused a second nucleus of a settlement around the fortified cathedral... 10th c. became a market place... 15th c. the town became a member of the Hanseatic League.   Formerly bishopric.  Associated territory was Grafschaft Ravensberg.  Represented by Osnabrueck in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648).... after which it was secularized and the Reichstag vote was by Brandenburg and their elector turned it into a garrison town..  It merged with Grafschaft Ravensberg for administrative purposes in 1719.  1759 one of the battles of the Seven Years' War was fought at Minden.  Became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia in 1808.  From 1811 to 1813 a portion of its territory west of the Weser River and the city of Minden was occupied by the French.  After Napoleon's defeat (1815) it was returned to Prussia (Hohenzollern)....

button Moers.  Presently in  Nordrhein-Westfalen.  Formerly Grafschaft which became Protestant at the time of the Reformation.  The ruling family of Moers, the  House of Orange, replaced the family of _____  which had been in rule.

button Moempelgard (Montbeliard).  Presently in the Department Doubls, France.  Formerly Grafschaft and principality.  After 1397 the territory belonged to the Wuerttemburgs.  Occupied by the French from 1676 to 1679, again in 1793 and annexed to France in 1801 where it has remained.

button Monfort  (Monthor).  Presently in Vorarlberg, Austria.  Formerly Grafschaft.  Member of the Schwaebische Grafenkolleg.  The families  of Monfort-Tettnang  and Rotenfels / Allgaeu until 1787 when the territories became Austrian and was the representative..  

button Muelhausen / Thuringen.  Presently in Bezirk Erfurt, Thuringia.  Formerly German Democractic Republic and before it was a Reichsstadt.  Member of the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westphalia.  Although it was declared a free city,  it was the center for administration of a number of imperial estates  (not named).

button Muelhausen / Alsace  (Elsace).  Presently in Alsace, France.  Formerly Reichstadt.  Became a member of the Swiss Confederation in 1515.  Became French in 1797.

button Muehlingen.  See Barby and Muelingen.

button Muenchenroth.  Formerly a prelate nullius.

button Muenster / Westfalen.  Presently in Nordrhein-Westfalen.  Formerly and still a bishopric.  Associated with the following territories, which were Herrschaft:  Stromberg, Emsland, Vechta, Horstmar, Lohn, Cloppenburg, Ahaus, Ottenstein.  Represented by Kurkoeln (Elector Cologne) in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648).  Muenster was the site of the "Thousand-Year Kindown" of the Baptists / Mennonites  (Wiedertaeufer) in 1534 - 1535. The city held a close relationship with the  House of Wittelsbach and more often than not it's archbishops were usually a Wittelsbach.  The territories were secularized in 1802-1803 and it was divided among the following:  Prussia [Hohenzollern], Oldenburg, Arenberg, Looz-Corswarem, Salm-Grumbach, Salm-Salm and Croy. There was an ecclesiastical reorganization in 1821 which divided the old areas into Bezirk Muenster ( some lands from Duesseldorf) and Bezirk Oldenurg.

button Muenster Im St. Gregoriental.  Presently in France and has been since 1648.....  Formerly prelate nullius.  The town of Muenster / Alsace joined the Protestants in 1536.

button Munzenberg.  Presently in Kreis Friedberg, Hessen.  Formerly Herrschaft.  The Stollberg family had owned this area and was part of the Kurmainz (Electoral Mainz).

button Murbach.   Presently in Upper Alsace, France.  Formerly prince-bishopric.  Represented by the Teutonic Knights (Deutschorden) in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648).  "De facto" French territory after 1648, however, legally it was still a member of the Reichsstand.  Associated with Lueders.  In 1764 the territory was secularized.  

button Myllendonk.  Presently in   _____ .Formerly Grafschaft.  Was  ruled by the Counts von Ostein.




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