List And Brief History of the German States, Grand Duchies, Principalities, etc before 1806.......Page P.  Remmick-Hubert Site

Last Updated:  8 Feb 2006

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List And Brief History of the German States, Grand Duchies, Principalities, etc before 1806 continued......


button Paderborn.  Presently in Nordrhein-Westfalen.  From the local springs begins the Pader River... Formerly a bishopric. 777 Charlemagne held his first Imperial Diet in the conquered Saxon territory...  806 foundation of the bishopric ... Member of the Hanse after 1294... Represented by Kurkoeln in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648).  During the period of the Reformation  (16c.) a number of territories were given to Ravensberg, Lippe, Waldeck...1732 some parishes were transferred to Kurkoeln..  1792 other parishes were transferred to the new bishopric of Corvey.  During the 17 th c. and 18  th c. many of the bishops were from the House of Lippe and later by the House of Fuerstenberg.    

button Palatinate see Pfalz

button Passau.  Presently in Bavaria.  Formerly a bishopric.  It was a fortified settlement of Bojodurum of the Ketlic tribe the Boii abt 1c B.C.......  Romans  renamed it Castra Batava and established this camp in A.D. 200 on the south bank of the Inn River.  7th c. a Bavarian ducal castle was built on the ruins of the old Roman fort.. Bishopric was founded aft 735... The territory of the Bavarian Duke extended a little later to the boundary [frontier] of Hungary.  1217 Bishop Ulrich II was raised to Prince of the Empire (Reichsfuerst).  Here the Treaty of Passu (1552) was signed between Emp. Charles V and Elector Maurice of Saxony which  gave room for the Augsburg religious settlement.  Was represented by the Teutonic Knights (Deutschorden) in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648).  Some of the territories were lost to the bishopric of Linz in 1783 and to St. Pelten in 1783 and in 1794 Passau lost it's territories to Austria... which in turn went to Bavaria in 1801.  Bishop was re-established in 1821... under Bavaria....

button Petershausen zu Konstanz.  Presently in the city of Constance, Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Formerly prelate nullius.  Herrscaft Hilzingen and Herdwange are associated with Peterhausen...

button Pfalz (Palatinate).  Presently part of the Land Rhineland-Pfalz... Formerly an electoral principality with many Grafschaften.    By the year 1803  Pfalz had been divided into 44 differently sovereignties whose rulers often transferred their religious loyalities from one church to another, therefore,  the history is extremely complicated The  main divisions were:  Pfalz-Simmern and Pfalz-Zweibruecken. The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz), Pfalz-Neuberg and Pfalz-Sulzbach held their own dynastic relationships in what is presently in Bavaria and not "contiguous" with Simmern - Zweibruecken.  For detail of the history of Palatinate see Remmicks Palatinate History under the map of part of the Pfalz area in 1990s, Palatinate Photographs - Index Page,  List of Rulers of Palatinate with a list of maps, plus the town of Edenkoben / Landau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany - INDEX PAGE and See  enlarged map with Edenkoben, Palatinate where part of the Remmick/Roemmich/Roemich/Remigius clan, ancestors of Judy A. Remmick-Hubert,  lived at the end of the 17th c. .  Added to this is: What Is A Palatinate?

Charlemagne in *th  8 c. conquered the area and added it to his empire.  In the 12th c. it was for a brief time part of Saxony... With the fall of Henry the Lion in 1180 the Duchy of Bavaria of which Pfalz was a part was given to Otto I, House of Wittelsbach, who's ancestor had been a Duke of Bavaria and given the title of Count Palatinate of the Rhine and since that date, 1214 to 1918, both the Palatinate which are the lands extending to the left and right of the middle Rhine and Bavaria belonged to the Wittelsbachs. Divisions which occurred through the years was given to or inherited by the various Wittelsbach branches.  One would need a road map to following which Wittelbach received which territory and when.  So, let's jump to 1329, Louis IV gave his nephews, Rudolph and Rupert the Palatinate of the Rhine (Lower Palatinate) and parts of northern Bavaria (Upper Palatinate).  Between 1329 to 1777 the Bavarian and Palatinate rulers remained separate.  

Palatinate was div. between the four living sons of Rupert III:  Louis III  received Palatinate of the Rhine; John of Neumarkt  received Upper Palatinate (presently northern Bavaria);  Stephen of Simmern received Zweibruecken and Simmern: and,  Otto  received Mosbach.

Louis III's lineage stopped when his des. Otto Henry d. 1559 and Philip d. 1548 without sons.

John of Neumarkt's lineage son Christopher, King of  Sweden and Denmark d. 1448  without heirs..

Stephen of Simmeren lineage Stephen of Simmeren's lineage, continued, also, through his son (1) Frederick I to is des. Frederick II, El. of Palatinate to his son Louis VI, Frederick IV and Frederick V, King of Bohemia... and his des. Charles II ended this line without heir; and (2)  his son Louis I, the Black's son Alexander of Zweibruecken d. 1514 who had two sons Louis II and Rupert who's line Counts of Palatine of Veldex ext 1694.  So, it was Alexander's son,   Louis II's Zweibruecken branch lineage who continued ... his grandson Charles I of Birkenfeld's, who  d. 1609, son Christian I continued the lineage... des. Christian III of Sweibruecken's son, Christian IV's lineage ext. 1893... The titles and lands leaped back to Christian III's brother's, Fred. Michael's,  d. 1767, branch and his son Charles Theodore II became Duke of Zweibruecken and his son Maximilian I, became King of Bavaria and his des. continued to be Kings of Bavaria.  Some of his des. became Princes of Spain....

Otto's lineage ext. in 1506...

Remember Rupert I ? The nephew of Emp. Frederick... Rupert's brother was Louis IV Barvarus, who became  Emp. of the Holy Roman Empire , who held his own lineage who continued with their own branches.  His sons were  (1) Louis V who became Elector of Brandenburg who's son Meinhard died without heir in 1363; (3) Stephen II continued and his des. became Dukes of Bavaria...; (4) Louis VI, El. of Brandenburg d. 1365; (5) William I became Count of Holland d. 1389; (6) Albrecht I, Count of Holland; and (6) Otto V, El. of Brandenburg d. 1379.  It was through  number (3) son Stephen II and his son John II of Munich the lineage continued and his des. became Charles , Emp. of the Holy Roman Emp. in 1742 who's son Maximilian III d. in 1777 and the lineage had to leap  frog over to the Palatinate  Zweibruecken branch to Charles Theodore  who united both the Palatinate branches.  His son Maximilian became Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria and Palatinate...  It was Maximilian I who formed an alliance with Napoleon and his reward was substantial new territory to the north and in 1805  napoleon gave him the title of King.  Napoleon had abolished the Holy Roman Empire... Although Bavaria fell with Prussia In WWI and Hilter rose and fell in WWII, the des. of Maximilian, Manimillian Emanuel holds the title of Duke in Bavaria and is married to a Swedish Countess.

Note:  The Remigiusberg cloister in Palatinate was independent from 1543 to 1694.  Neustadt  was independent from 1576 to 1583 which had become Calvinist.... See history of Remmick:  Lorenz Remigius (Roemich), Treasurer of Nuestadt on the Haardt....


button Pfullendorf.  Presently in Kries Uberlingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Formerly Riechsstadt.  Member of the Catholic corpus a the Peace of Westphalia (1648).  In 1803 the territory became Baden's.

button Plesse.  Presently in Leinstal by Eddigehausen in the Kreis Goettingen, Niedersachsen.  Formerly Herrschaft.  In 1571 the Reichstag vote was cancelled when the ruling family ____ became ext., then it became territory of Hesse.  1816 Hanover was given the territory.

button Polheim.  Absorbed by Austria  in ____ . Formerly Grafschaft.

button Pommern (Pomerania).  A part is presently in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Lower Pomerania).  Formerly German Democratic Republic and Poland.  Formerly duchy.  The area by the 10th c. was populated by Slavic tribes... Became a Duchy in 11 th c. . Christianized and came under Polish rule in the 12 th c.  Vorpommern was Swedish territory.  Hinterpommern belonged to Brandenburg.  By 1181 it was split into two principalities :(1) Eastern part, which included Danzig, was called Pomerelia.  Annexed by  Poland 1295.... Ceded to the Teutonic Knights in 1308... Reverted to Poland 1466...  (2) Western part became Duchy of the Holy Roman Empires who occupied it in 1628.... The resistance in Stralsund caused the Swedish intervention and Hither Pomerania (included Stettin and Stralsund) went to Sweden and the eastern or Farther Pomerania was acquired in half by Prussia [Hohenzollern] . The duchies of Pommern-Stettin and Pommern-Wolgast were represented by Kurbrandenburg (Electoral Brandenburg) in the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Wesphalia (1648)... In 1720 the second half of the eastern part was acquired by Prussian and in 1815 the Swedish territory fell to Prussia.  After WWII reverted to Poland.  Pomerania's west half, however, became part of Mecklenburg.....Dissolved in 1952 ... With the fall of the Berlin wall,  changes were made and now, Lower Pommerania is in the Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern....

button Preussen (Prussia).  Presently parts of old Prussia  can be found in new Germany, Poland, Russia and France. In 1853 the following possessions were under the  Prussian ing Frederick William IV's [House of Hohenzollern's] ruled.


  • Silesia
  • Grand Duchy of Niederhein
  • Grand Duchy of Posen
  • Duchy of Saxony
  • Duchy of Engern
  • Duchy of Westphalia
  • Duchy of Geldern
  • Duchy of Magdeburg
  • Duchy of Cleve
  • Duchy of Juelich
  • Duchy of Pommern
  • Duchy of Cassubia
  • Duchy of the Wenden
  • Mecklenburg
  • Duchy of Crossen
  • Thuringia
  • Oberlausitz
  • Niederlaustiz
  • Oranien and NeuenburgRuegen
  • Pyrmont
  • Paderborn
  • Muenster
  • Minden
  • Camin (Kamin)
  • Fuerstl. Wenden
  • Fuerstl. Schwerin
  • RatzeburgMoers
  • Eichsfeld
  • Erfurt

  • Nassau
  • Granschaft Henneberg
  • Ruppin
  • Grafschaft Mark
  • Ravensberg
  • Hohenstein
  • Grafschaft Tecklenburg
  • Grafschaft Lingen
  • Grafschaft Schwerin
  • Sayn
  • Rostock
  • Stargard
  • Grafschaft Arensberg
  • Grafschaft Barby
  • others

The history of Prussia is very complex. It grew out of two frontier provinces Brandenburg, which is the ancient core, and Prussia, plus other territories  which were inherited, purchased or fell became known as Germany.  In medieval times, the area, we know, now, as Germany was divided into five duchies:  (1) Lorraine, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria and Saxony.

The Duke of Saxony,  [the House of Ascanian] was  under the rule of  Albrecht the Bear, Margrave of Brandenburg (b.1100? ,  d. 1184),  gained more territory when the last Wedis prince made him his heir.  He ruled what was then the frontier on the eastern boundary of Saxony...  

One of the Albrecht's des. married the Burgraves of Nuremberg.

Who was the Burgrave of Neuremberg who roots carried back to  a knight called Burchard I who owned a castle in Swabia known as Zoll or  Zollerin [and later called  Hohenzollern]....?

Burchard I had fought with Emp. Frederick I, Barbarosa  (House of Hohenstaufen which was a branch of athe Salian House) who had extended the Holy Roman Empire to Poland, Hungary, Burgundy and Denmark.  and was with him on his way to the Third Holy Crusades....But, on his way to the crusade the  Emp. accidentally drown.  

Frederick I's son became Emp. Henry VI in 1190 ... and for services rendered, gave Burchard I's son Frederick (I), the title of Bgr. of Nuermeberg (1192). Henceforth, the Hohenzollerns were called  "the Minor House of Brandenburg" because of his marriage to Albrecht's des. ____ . And, in these times,  blood ties were all important.

Meanwhile, in 1221,  the  German House known as the Hospital of St Mary who were a branch of the Teutonic Knights had returned from their Crusades needed a place to call their own. From 1221 to 1283 they  fell the inhabitants of  territories [eastern frontier on the border of Brandenburg) which included towns like Riga and Konigsburg, castles and estates... along the northern borders which we know today are in Russia, Poland, Mecklenburg - Pomerinia and Germany. The Teutonic Knights exterminated the local pagan population (the Baltic language grp.) and created their domains, West and East Prussia.  

Meanwhile, Albert, the Bear's  des. became ext. in 1320 and the control of the territory was passed to the Holy Roman Emp. Sigmund from the House of Wittelbach. Sigmund pawned" the province [loaned 10,000 gelders plus another 200,000 gold guldens] to Frederick Hohenzollern  of Nuremberg.....

It was the Brandenburg-Hohenzollerns who branch who were the ancestors of all the branches of the family which included the Ansbach and Bayreuth lines [ceded to Prussia in 1791] and the Swabin line which refers to the future Kings of Rumania.  

The Swabin line held titles such as Zollern-Schalksburg (ext. 1500),  Counts of Hohenzollern, Counts of  Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Counts of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch, Prince of Hohenzollern, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Prince of Rumania, King of Rumania....

With the ext. of the Hohenstaufen in 1320,  theEmpire gradually fell apart as the subordinate dynasties were ruling their dukedoms unchecked by  an Emperor or any kind of formal agreement.

In 1356 the attempt to make a check and balance of the dukedoms was established a decree by Hapsburg's Charles IV was issued and was called "The Golden Bull" which established seven electors who would have the duty to elect the future German "sovereign".  They were:  Archbishop of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, King of Bohemia, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Saxony and the Margrave of Brandenburg [Hohenzollern].

After 1400 the Teutonic Knights become improvished due to the introduction of mercenary armies and foot soldiers raised by the various kings, princes and families who held the funds and the power.... and this was the beginning of Prussia...

Emp. Signmund  d. in 1417  and his wife, Margaret m. John III Hohenzollern who d. one year later....  No heirs.  John III Hohenzollern's brother, Frederick, became Frederick IV and since no one was able to redeem Brandenburg from the Hohenzollerns so Frederick VI continued his rule as Frederick I, Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg ....

1517 began the period known as the Reformation when people pulled away from the Catholic Church and the Pope in Rome creating conflict among rulers right down to causing divisions within families rich and poor...

The following is a very general list of the religious order of things from 1517 to 1561:
LIST Protestants who followed Lutheranism were in :
  • Estonia - 1524
  • Livonia  - 1524
  • Brandenburg - 1525
  • Prussia - 1525
  • Mecklenburg 1526(Lutheran) /1548 (to Calvinist) ( w a small portion remained Catholic)
  • Saxony, Electorate - 1526
  • Emden - 1526 (Lutheran) 1542  (to Calvinst)
  • Sweden  - 1527
  • Hesse - 1527
  • Finaland - 1528
  • Wuerttemberg - 1524
  • Ansbach 0 1528
  • Nassau - 1528
  • Pommerania - 1534
  • Denmark - 1536
  • Saxony, Duchy of - 1639
  • Norway - 1539
  • Holstein -1542 (small portion remained Catholic)
  • Brunswick-Luenburg - 1545
  • Schleswig 1547
  • Courland - 1561
  • Part of (no dates listed):
    1. Cleves
    2. Julich
    3. Berg

Protestants who became Calvin [Zwinglianism] were:

  • Bern - 1526
  • Emden - 1526 (Lutheran) 1542  (to Calvinst)
  • Mecklenburg 1526(Lutheran) /1548 (to Calvinist) ( w a small portion remained Catholic)
  • Scotland - 1560 
  • Glarus - 1524

Protestants who became Anglican:

  • England and Wales - 1534

Remained Catholics with sprinkles of other religions:

  • Friesland, Spanish Netherlands, France, Franche Comte, Savoy, Miland, Italy, Tyrol, Bavaria, Dalmatia, Spain, Sardina, Corsica, most of Ireland and northern part of Scotland...

Coutnries which held main groups of Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinsts were:

  • Lithuania, Poland and Hungary

Russia remained Orthodox

Turkey was half and half:  Orthodox and Muslim

In 1525 the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Albert  III of Brandenberg (Hohenzollern - Ansbach) embraced Protestantism and changed the domain of Brandenburg into a hereditary duchy. He withdrew from the Order.  He had separatead himself from the Catholic Hapsburg Emp.

1555  The Peace of Augsburg recongized the Lutheran faith and gives each German state the right of the religion of it's rulers

1614-1648 the Thirty Years War occurred caused by the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants.... which ended with the Treaty of Westphalia ..  About 1/3rd of the population was lost in the German states..

Meanwhile (1640 to 1701) the Hohenzollerns were rising in power through marriages and buying land..  Frederick III [Hohenzollern]  had married three times:  (1) Elizabeth Henrietta of Hesse-Kassl; (2) in [1684) Sophia Charolotte, dau of the Elector of Hanover Ernest Augustus and Sophia, the grandau. of James I, King of England and Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover.  Sophia Charlotte's uncle was Georg I, King of England [House of Hanover]; and, (3) Sophia Louisa of Mecklenburg-Schweiin. He inherited the title of Elector of Brandenburg in 1688 and  in 1657 became a Sovereign Duke of Prussia in ...  He secured the eastern half of Pomerania, the bishoprics of Holberstadt and Minden and the reversion of the diocese Magdenburg.  He freed the Prussian lands from Poland.... Accept the portion of land that kept Koenigsberg it's own Prussian island to the east. He reorganized and fought well.  He pulled away from Austria who's ruler was also ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. And the German states held two powerful families,  the Hohenzollerns who were Protestant (Lutheran) and the Hapsburgs who were Catholic... Frederick III  made himself Frederick I, King "in" Prussia and united Brandenburg with Prussia in 1701.

Hereafter all the Hohenzollern property, including Brandenburg, was*------ called "Prussia"....  

His sons Frederick II became Princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (ext 1869), Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Kings of Rumania. His second son was Conrad I who  held the title of Mrgv. of Nurenberg and it was his des, King Frederick II, who became "the Great" of Prussia...

Frederick II "the Great"  gains Silesian from Austria... between 1740-1748.

In 1795 Prussia signs the Peace of Basle...with France.

1803 King and Prussia gains more land.

1806 Napoleon  established Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon's watchful eye and ends the existence of the Holy Roman Empire and the Austrian Emp.[Hapsburg].  Also, Prussia is defeated at Jena.

1807 Prussia signs Peace of Tilsit and loses all their lands west of the Elbe, and, Napoleon establishes the Kingdom of Westphalia place his brother Jerome on the throne.

1808-12 Prussia goes under reconstruction and reform, as well as changes regulation of municipal governments, liberation of peasants, fives freedom to practise trades, emancipated the Jews and reforms the army under Freherr von Stein, Harden, Scharnhosrt and Gneisenau.

1813 Wars of Liberation from Napoleon.  Prussia is liberated after the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig.  End of the Confederation of the Rhine.  

1815 Napoleon's last defeat.

1814-1815 Congress of Vienna

1864  Prussia and Austria went to war with Denmark over Schewsig-Holstein.

1866 Prussian are victorious at Koeniggraetz over Austria.

1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War and Prussia gains Alsace and Lorraine.

1871 King Wilhelm I becomes Emp. of Germany and incorporates all of the German states except Austria and Luxembourg.  His chief minister, Otto von Bismark, dominated decisions made by the Emp.

1914-1918 WW I Germany is defeated.

1939 - 1945  WW II  German is defeated and there is a division of German....

8 Nov 1889  Fall of the Berlin Wall

Reunification of East and West Germany....

 For more detail see: Hohenzollern Home Site .  

Map of 1772

button Pruem.  Presently in Kreis Bitburg-Pruem, Rheinland-Pfalz.  Formerly prince-bishop and prelate nullius.  Was represented by Trier in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Wesphalia who had taken control of the territory as an Oberamt in 1676... Some of the present Kreise holds territory that was formerly in Kreise Wittlich and Trier. 

button Pueckler, Counts of (von).  This family is associated with the estates of Muskau and Oimpurg.  They were on the personalisten in the Fraenkische Grafenkolleg.  The family was Silesian with a branch in Franconia since the 18 c. .  Family Pueckler-Limpurg was Lutheran.

button Pyrmont.  Presently in Kreis Hameln-Lyrmont, Niedersachsen.  Formerly Grafschaft.  Member of the Westfaelische Grafenkolleg.  Was represented by the  Protestant princes von Waldeck after 1625.



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