List And Brief History of the German States, Grand Duchies, Principalities, etc before 1806......Page H.  Remmick-Hubert Site

Last Updated: 27 April 2004

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List And Brief History of the German States, Grand Duchies, Principalities, etc before 1806 continued......


button Haag im Oberbayern.  Presently in Kreis Wasserburg am Inn, Oberbayer (Upper Bavaria).  In 1567 it's vote in the Reichstag was cancelled when the Herrschaft was absorbed by Bavaria and, therefore, became part of the Free Herrschaft.  

button Hachenburg.  Presently in Oberwesterwaldkreis, Rheinland-Pfalz.  See Westfaelische Grafenkolleg.  See Sayn-Hachenburg.

button Hagenau.  Presently in Departement Bas-Rhin, France.  Before it became French territory in 1648 it was part of the Reichsstadt and Landvogtei which were:  Kaiserberg, Colmar, Schlettstadt, Weissenburg in Elsass (Alsace), Oberehnheim (Obernal), Rosheim, Landau, Tuerkheim, Muenster in St. Gregoriental Territory....

button Halberstadt.  Presently in Bezirk Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt.  Was represented by the Tuetonic Knights (Deutschorden)....  1648 was Secular  and its vote in the Reichstag was given by the Brandenburg family.  Was part of the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia.  Was in the German Democratic Republic.

button Hallermund (Hallermuende).  Since 1706 was represented by the Counts of Platen-Hallermund who were Lutheran and Catholic.  

button Hamburg.  Presently part of Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg  [Land of Hamburg].  Founded in the 9th C. and developed during the Middle Ages into an important commercial and ecclesiastical port town... Was a free Hanseatic City and has maintained its freedom under local aristocracy.  In 1618 the Reichskammergerlich decreased the city's status and did not gain a vote in the Reichstag until 1770. Was part of the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westphalia.  In 1842 it was nearly destroyed by a great fire and it was Solomen Hein whose money rebuilt the city, however, he's  best known today in history for being the brother of the famous poet Heinrich Heine ....  Destruction occured, again, only this time by bombs between 1943 - 45.  Many buildings were restored... in 1962 terrible tides from a storm caused havoc and  restoration began...again... 

button Hanau-Lichtenberg.  Presently in Hessen.  It was represented by the senior line, the Lichtenbergs]  of the Brabant Dynasty. Family became Lutheran.  In 1736 the treaty of inheritance gave the properties to Hessen-Kassel.  The Reichstag vote was cancelled in 1736.  The estates connected to the Hanau-Lichtenberg families are:  (1) Babenhausen and (2) Bornheim.  See Hanau-Muenzenberg

button Hanau-Muenzenberg.  Presently in Hessen. See the Hanau-Lichtenberg family.  Merged with Hessen-Kassel in 1736.  Formerly a Grafschaft.

button Hanover (Hannover, or Kur-Braunschweig).  Presently in Niedersachen (Lower Saxony).  Rose out of the Dark Ages as a market settlement.  It was recorded in 1150 as vicus Hanover.  Received its charter from Henry the Lion.  The House of Guelf  sold its rights to the Calenberg  [Kalenberg] family in 1495.  1632 Kur-Braunschweig  (Duchy of Braunschweig - Wolfenbuettel) . became Kur-Hanover and achieved electoral status.... It wasn't until 1636 that a member of this family, Duke Georg von Calenberg, took up residence in Hanover.  Was a member of the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westphalia.  By personal union Hanover became joined from 1714 to 1837 to England for several reasons.  Through family sucessions and its agreement in the emigrants to the American colonies.... In 1774 the Elector of Hanover, George Ludwig, became Georg I  King of England ... Hanover remained seperate from England, although, it was part of Georg I's domain.  Prussia occupied it in 1801 and 1805.  Napoleon occupied it from 1806 to 1806 then from  just its southern part in 1807 to 1813 ...  Was part of the Kingdom of Westphalia from 1810 to 1813 when it was liberated and became "a kingdom enlarged by merger " with:  Osnabrueck, Emsland, Ostfriesland, Hildesheim, Goslar and Unterriechfeld. In 1814 George III of England became King of Hanover.  1837 when Victoria became Queen of England, she could not continue her line as ruler over Hanover because Hanover could only be ruled by a male heir.  The crown passed to Victoria's uncle Ernst Augustus, Duke of Comberland, who joined with Austria in 1866 and lost Hanover later that year to Prussia.  In 1922 Grafschaft Pyrmont and Schaumburg were added while Kreis Ilfeld was transferred to Saxony. 

button Hardeck.  Presently in Austria.  Was formerly a Grafschaft.

button Harrach, Counts of (von).  Family owned Herrschaft Ruhrau in Lower Austria.  Was a member of the Schwaebische Grafenkolleg.  The family von Harrach held a branch who were Catholic and a branch who were Lutheran

button Hartenburg.  See Wetterauische Grafenkolleg.  See Leiningen-Hartenburg family.

button Havelberg.  Presently in  Brandenburg Land.   Area was bishopric but changed to Protestant in 1561 and was absorbed by Brandenburgs in 1781 and is the northwest corner of Potsdam.. Was in the German Democratic Republic and part of the ..Bezirk Magdeburg

button Heben (Hohenhesen).  Presently in Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Near Engen  which is northwest of Lake Constance.  Reichstag vote was cancelled in 1570.  Area was held by Austria (Hapsburgs) until 1805.  Was given to Wuertemberg, who moved into Napoleon's camp until 1810 when it became part of Baden.  Baden and Wuerttemberg were combined.  

button Hegau.  See Heben or Hohenhewen.  St. Georgenschild im Hegau.

button Heggbach.  Presently within the town of Maselheim, Kreis Biberach, Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Began as a woman's religious abbey.  The religious estate held five villages.  The Abbot of Salem held the secularized vote to the year 1803, after which it was administered by th Counts von Waldbott-Bassenheim until 1873.... 

button Heideck.  Presently in Kreis Hilpoltstein, Mittelfranken, Bayern (Bavaria).  Formerly a Herrschaft.  The area had been Bavarian after 1471,  After 1505 was administered by the Pfalz-Neuburg branch of the Wittelsbach Dynasty.

button Heidesheim.  See Leiningen-Heidesheim Family .  See Wetterausiche Grafenkolleg.

button Heilbronn.  Presently in Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Name  tells us the early village  was built around a "sacred spring" and developed into an imporant trading town by the Necker River and became the most important industrial and commerical town of the Lower Swabia.... Was part of the Reichsstadt. Represented by Esslingen in the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westphalia.

button Heiligenberg.  Presently in Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Formerly in the Reichsstadt.  Member of the Schwaebische Grafenkolleg and was represented by the Princes zu Fuerstenberg after 1534. Family was Catholic.  In 1806 the area merged with Baden.

button Heinsberg.  See Juelich and Berg..... 

button Helfenstein.  Presently in Baden-Wuerttemberg and found near Geislingen an der Steige. Formerly a Grafschaft.  Member of the Schwaebische Grafenkolleg. Part of the Reichstag and it's vote  was controlled by Bavaria.

button Henneberg.  Presently  in Thuringa and found near Meiningen.  Formerly gefuerstete [princely] Grafschaft under the Hennebergs.  Became part of Hessen Kassel (Herrschaft Schmalkaden) and was represented by Sachsen-Altenburg-Koenigsegg [Trenck] in name of Saxony in the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westpahlia.  From 1680 to 1920 the territory for the most part was in the Duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen.  In 1851 the Kursachsiche (Electoral Saxon) part became Prussian (Hohenzollern) but not the Hessen part which in 1866 did become Prussian Herford.  Presently in  Nordrhein-Westfalen.  Formerly a Reichsstadt.  Area grew around the women's religious abbey founded by a Saxon nobleman  for his daughters in 789. Near the town is the church of St. Dionysisu which holds the sarcophaus of the Saxon Duke Wittekind (c. 1100).  Emp. Ludwig, the Pious, gave it the status of Imperial City in 1170.  The new town (Neustadt) was founded in 1220... In 1342 the town became part of the Hanse.   In 1547 Juelich  took control of the area. In 1631 it's status in the Reichsstadt was reaffirmed. The Brandenburgs invaded the area and it remained in their domain.  In 1816 became the town of a Kreis (district).

button Herrenald.  Presently in the Kreis Calw, Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Formerly a prelate nullius.  The area once held 40 villages and was secularized by Wuerttemberg in 1535.

button Hersfeld.  Presently in Hessen.  Was formerly a prelate nullius.  Area grew around the Abbey of Hersfeld which was represented by the Teutonic Knights (Deutschorden) in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia.  Secularized in 1606-1648 and came under the principality of Hessen-Kassel.

button Hessen  (Hesse).  Presently a state within Germany.  Formerly a principality and prelate nullius, a landgraviate and a Grafschaft.  At the death of Henry Raspe, des. of Louis With The Beard [Ludwig mitt dem Bart] of Thuringia,  his lands were divided among his four sons and so his lands became known as Hessen-Marburg, Hessen-Rheinfelds, Hessen-Cassel [-Kassel]and Hessen-Darmstadt. The first two did not continue for long.   The two lines that continued were: (1)Hessen-Kassel  (the senior line  was Lutheran who became part of the Reformed Church  in 1604) and  (2) Hessen-Darmstadt (followed Martin Luther's doctrines and remained Lutheran).  Both were members of the Protestant corpus at the Peace of Westphalia (1648).  The Hessian mercenary troops are best known in the USA because some 20,000 were hired by England from Langrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel and fought in the Americans in the War of Independence..  Frederick II's counsellor was David Hein. In 1803 Napoleon gave Langrave Wilhelm the title of Elector....  Hessen-Darmstadt diminished and all that continued was the Landgraviate of Hessen-Homberg... Hessen-Homberg married well..and joined Napoleon. . Louis X became Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine in 1813..... In 1866 Hesse-Kassel fought with Austria, defeated and the domain was added to the Hohenzollern lands of Prussia.  Hesse-Darmstadt continued until 1866 when it, too, was defeated by the Hohenzollerns, however,  it was given independence because of its close ties to the royal family.....  but continued under Prussian protection....  

Interesting notes:  Prince Alexander m. Countess Julia von Hauke who was created Princess of Battenberg in 1858.... the members of the family who remained in England changed their name to Mountbatten in 1917...  1918 the Grand-Duchy of Hesse was taken into the Republic of Germany... The titles became Queen Elisabeth of England's husband's,. Prince Philip of Greece and Dennmark  of the House of Schleswig-Holstein. His Hessen connection is through his maternal side.  Minor  and Major titles, also,  connected to Hessen are:  Counts of Nidda, Baron of Dornberg, Baron of Lichtengerg, Landgraves of Hesse-Rheinfels Rotenburg, Langraves of Hesse-Philippstal-Barchfeld, Princes of Hanau, Counts of Hohnstein..... Dukes of Brabant.... Dukes of Lorraine .... Dukes of Austria [House of Hapsburg] after Duke of Lorraine m. Maria Theresa 1736....  It is often said that the tapestry of Hesse weaves into its family genealogy all the royal houses of Europe.  

button Hessen-Darmstadt.  Presently part of Hessen.  See its history above in Hessen.... The des. of Louis With The Beard, Count of Thuringia, Henry of Brabant (d. 1308), the first Landgrave of Hesse, divided his land into Upper Hesse (Marburg area) and Lower Hesse (Cassel Area) and gave them to his sons Otto and John.  The cousins constantly were in conflict.....  The area of Hanau-Lichtenberg was lost in 1736. In 1830 it gained territories east of the Rhine.  They were Kurmainz and Kurpflaz.  They also gained the Kurkoelnische Duchy of Westphalia (Brilon and Arnsberg) and Reichestadt Friedberg. Perhaps best known was Ernest Louis who built a marvelous palace at Darmstadt and tried to collect all the art work of the world that was to match the glories of Versailles.    During the time of Napoleon,  Louis V supported Napoleon and became Grand Duke of Hesse[n].....  1805 they gained Grafschaft Erbach and some baronial territories (Reichsritterschaft-liche).  Congress of Vienna came them farther title , Grand Duke of Hesse[n] and the Rhine in 1813...  In 1815 Westphalia was exchanged with Prussia for the principality of Isenberg-Birstein (Offenbach), Worms, Alzey and Bingen. In 1816 Hessen-Darmstadt fought with Austria but was defeated by Prussia who gave Hessen-Darmstadt indepence while under Prussia's protection.  She also gained Mainz but   Hessen-Homburg, Kreis Biedenkopf and Kreis Voehl were lost to Prussia.  

button Hessen-Kassel (Cassel).  See history of Hessen.  From time to time,  the territory was divided into cadet branches.  There was Hessen-Philippstal (after 1685) whose area held the Abbey of Hersfeld and Hessen-Rotenburg-Rheinfels (1627-1834). It was Frederick II  of Hesse-Kassel (senior line) and his 20,000 Hessian mercenaries who fought in the American Revolution who is best known here in the USA. In 1807 merged with the kingdom of Westphalia.... 1813-1815 Hesssen was re-established ...... 1866 Hessen-Kassel was annexed to Prussia....At the death of Frederick Wilhlem I the area passed to his cousin but the defeat of Germany [WWI] ended their rule.... 

button Hessen-Nassau.  Presently in the state of Hessen.  It did not exist and held no history before 1866. It was a Prussian Province from 1868 to 1944 which had been annexed by Prussia in 1866 and became the Duchy of Nassau... It held Hessen-Homburg territory, districts of former Bavarian Bezirke Gersfeld and Orb, districts of Biedenkopf and Vohy (previously in Hessen-Darmstadt) as well as the city of Frankfurt on the Main.  In 1929 was added Kreis Rinteln (Grafschaft Schaumburg) and merged with Hannover.  

button Hildesheim.  Presently in Niedersachsen (Lower Sazony).  By 1519 to 1523 most of the lands of the diocese, founded around the cathedral built abt 1815 by Louis , The Pious, was taken by Braunschweig-Lueneberg .  Represented by Kurkoeln in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphailia (1648). Parts of the area were  secularized in 1802.  The areas that had been taken by Prussia  (Hohenzollern) from 1802 to 1807 became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807 to 1813 under Napoleon. It merged with Hanover.  In 1866 it was returned to Prussia....

button Hoch und Deutschmeister  (The Teutonic Order of Knights).  Formerly a prelate nullius with lands scattered throughout the German states, Burgundy and Italy. It was represented in the Catholic corpus at the Peace of Westphalia.

History: Teutonic Knights of the German Order of the Hospital of St. Mary in Jerusalem was founded in 1190-91 in Acre (Akko)... German military religious order was founded in Palestine in the Holy Land and modeled on those of the Templars and Hospitaliers  When they returned to Europe,  they conquered western Slavic lands, areas later known as East Prussia and in the Baltic areas.... The Teutonic Knights of the German Order of the hospital of St. Mary rose to prominence when they undertook the conquest of the pagan Prussia in 1226...They were united by the Livonian Knights from 1237-1525 and took the territories of Prussia, Eastern Pomerania and area around Danzig....  First seat was in Marienburg which was replaced in Koenigsberg, Prussia in 1466.  

Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order after 1195 to 1525:

By 1530 the order established its central administration at Mergentheim (Bad Mergentheim)  which is  presently in Baden-Wuerttemberg.  They divided their lands into twelve regions known as Balleien.  They were as follows:

These areas were further divided into districts (Komtureien) which had a number of local offices (Amtern).

In 1809 Napoleon defeated the German states and suppressed the Knights Order and their estates were taken and given to various Lords of his choice.  After Napoleon's defeat,  the order did not re-establish until 1834 in Austria.  It was suppressed under Hitler.

In 1945 the Teutonic Order was set up to be an organization whose purpose is to raise money for charitable purposes in Austria.

There are records that show it's members...... 

button Hohennems.  Presently in Bezirk Feldkirch, Vorarlberg in Austria  (1617 to present).  It was formerly a Grafschaft.  Was a member of the Schwaebische Grafenkollege.  

button Hohenfels and Reipoltskirchen (Kolkofen).  Presently  in Kreis Sigmaringen, Baden-Wuerttemberg.  Formerly a Herrschaft.  Vote was called in 1602.  Was property of the Teutonic Knights (Deutschorden) to 1809....

button Hohengeroldseck and Kronberg.  Presently in Kreis Lahr, Baden-Wuerttemberg. Fomerly a Herrschaft.  Estates connected were Lahr and Mahlberg.  Was member of the Schwebische Grafenkolleg.  It was represented by the Counts von der Leyen after 1692. They were Catholic.  Half of the estate was bought by Counts von Veldenz and inherited by the Counts von Moers-Saarwerden. In 1819 the Herrschaft was sold to Baden.

button Hohenhewen (Hoehn-Howewen)  See Heben.

button Hohenlohe,  Princes and  Count of (von) .  Belonged to the Wolfstein family and represnted by their heirs in the Franconian Grafenkolleg.  There are two mains lines of this dynast:  (1) Hohenlohe-Neunstein which is Protestant and (2) Hohenlohe-Waldenburg which is Catholic.  Other branches include:  Langenburg, Ohringen, Ingelfingen, Bartenstein, Jagstberg, Waldenburg-Schillingsfuerst and Schillingsfuerst (the Dukes of Ratbor and Corvey).  Most of the lands of this dynasty were found in Wuerttemberg and a few in Bavaria.  The Ratibor branch was prominent in Silesia.

button Hohenstein.  There were two.  One presently in Kreis Hersbruck, Mittelfranken, Bayern (Bavaria).  Formerly a Grafscaft.  In 1563 the Reichstag vote was cancelled.  It's administration was under Nuernberg.  The other is presently in Landkreis Nordhaussen, Bezirk, Erfurt , Thurgina which had been in the Democratic Republic.  They had belonged to the Teutonic Knights (Deutschorden).

button H  continued.......


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